Three versions of the

Iroquois Creation Story

(“Earth Diver” variety)

from Waking Up on Turtle Island

Iroquois Creation Story 1

 From the Iroquois Indian Museum (

[1.1] Before our world came into being, human beings lived in the SkyWorld. Below the SkyWorld was a dark watery world with birds and animals swimming around.

In the SkyWorld was the Celestial Tree from which all kinds of fruits and flowers grew. Today, the Shad tree [serviceberry bush] is known as the Celestial Tree because it is the first flowering tree in the northeast in the springtime.

Serviceberry Tree

[1.2] The wife of the Chief of the SkyWorld was called Skywoman. One night, Skywoman, who was expecting a baby, had a dream in which the Celestial Tree was uprooted. When she told her husband the dream he realized that it was a very powerful message and that the people of the SkyWorld needed to do everything they could to make it come to pass.

[1.3a] Many of the young men in the SkyWorld tried with all their might to uproot the tree, but failed. Finally the Chief of the SkyWorld wrapped his arms around the tree and with one great effort he uprooted it.

[1.3b] This left a great hole in the crust of the SkyWorld. Skywoman leaned over to look into the hole, lost her balance and fell into the hole. As she slipped she was able to grasp a handful of seeds from the branches of the Celestial Tree.

[1.4] As Skywoman fell, the birds and animals in the water below saw her and decided that she would need help so that she would not be harmed. Geese flew up and caught her between their wings and began to lower her down toward the water. The animals saw that Skywoman was not like them and would not be able to survive in the water.


Skywoman falling, from

[1.5] Each of the animals dove into the water trying to bring up earth from the bottom for Skywoman to land on. Many animals tried and failed. When it seemed like all had tried and failed, tiny muskrat vowed to bring up earth or die trying. She went down, deep, deep, deep, until she was almost unconscious, but was able to reach out with one small paw and grasped some earth before floating back to the top. When muskrat appeared with the Earth, the Great Turtle said it could be placed on his back. When the tiny bit of earth was placed on Turtle's back, it began to grow larger and larger until it became the whole world.

[1.6] The geese gently set Skywoman on the earth and she opened her hands to let the seeds fall on the soil. From the seeds grew the trees and grass and life on Earth had begun.

[1.7]  In time, Skywoman gave birth to a daughter, Tekawerahkwa, who grew to be a lovely young woman. A powerful being called West Wind fell in love with Tekawerahkwa and took her as his bride. In time she became pregnant with twin sons. Tekawerahkwa's sons were very different; one (Bad Mind) had skin as hard as flint and was argumentative and the other (Good Mind) was soft skinned and patient. Flint [Bad Mind twin] was impatient to be born and decided to use his sharp flint-like head to cut his way out of his mother's body. While his gentle brother was being born the natural way, Bad Mind was forcing his way through his mother's armpit which killed her. When Skywoman saw the lifeless body of her beautiful daughter she was terribly angry. She asked her grandsons who had done this awful thing and Bad Mind lied and placed the blame on his good brother, Good Mind.* Skywoman believed him and banished Good Mind. Fortunately, Grandfather was watching Good Mind and came to his aid. Grandfather taught Good Mind all he needed to know about surviving on the earth and set him to work making the land beautiful. [Is Bad Mind's shifting of blame comparable to Genesis 3.12, where Adam appears to shift blame to Eve?]

[1.8] Skywoman placed the head of her daughter in the night sky where she became Grandmother Moon and was given power over the waters. From her body grew our Three Sisters, corn, beans, and squash.

[1.9] Good Mind made all the beauty on our earth—he created the rivers , the mountains, the trees. He taught the birds to sing and the water animals to dance. He made rainbows and soft rains.  Bad Mind watched his brother creating beauty and was envious.[cf. Satan?] He set out to create the opposite of all the good his brother had made. He put dangerous rapids in the rivers, created destructive hurricanes and powerful tornadoes. When Good Mind planted medicinal plants, Bad Mind planted poisonous roots and deadly berries.

[1.10] One day, while Good Mind was away creating more things of beauty, Bad Mind stole all the animals and hid them in a big cave. When Good Mind returned to find that all of his creatures were gone he was very sad. A tiny mouse told him what his brother had done, so Good Mind went to the cave and caused the mountain to shake until it split so that the animals could emerge. Good Mind was very angry with his brother and they fought. Bad Mind used an arrow and Good Mind used a deer antler as weapons. When Good Mind struck Bad Mind with the deer antler it caused flint chips to fall from his body. Their battle raged for many days and finally Good Mind won. He banished Bad Mind to live in caves beneath the earth where he waits to return to the surface.

Iroquois Creation Story 2

[Instructor’s note: The “some say” options in this version indicate the multiple story-telling traditions that each performance draws from.]

[2.1] Long, long ago, where we are now, there was no land, just water and creatures of the water.  But, up above, there was a place called Karonhia:ke or The Sky World.  Now, in The Sky World there were beings who were in some ways like human beings and in some ways they were different. The beings in Sky World had more powers than human beings have.  For instance, they could make things happen just by thinking about it.

[2.2] There was a tree growing in the center of Sky World.  It was called the Tree of Life. [cf. Genesis 2.9 & Revelation 2.7 & 22.2] On that tree grew many different kinds of fruit.  Also, there were blossoms on that tree and those blossoms glowed. They lit up Sky World.

[2.3] The beings in Sky World were told not to disturb that tree.  But one day, a woman who was expecting a baby, asked for a drink of tea made from the roots of the Tree of Life.  Her name was Atsi’tsiakaion which means Mature Flower.  When her husband started to dig around near the bottom of the tree to get at the roots, the dirt caved in and some say that the tree fell down.  This was terrible.  The woman went to see what had happened.  Some say that she lost her balance and fell into the hole.  Some say that she knew she was destined to go through that hole and so she jumped.  Some say that she was pushed.  Nevertheless, she grabbed some seeds from the Tree of Life as she fell. Because she fell through the hole in the sky, many people refer to her as Sky Woman.

[2.4] Down below, there was a flock of water birds flying through the air.  Some say they were geese Some say they were blue heron Some say they were swans.  One of them [water birds] looked and up and saw Sky Woman falling.  He spoke to the other birds and they decided to make a great blanket with their bodies and catch her on their backs. They caught her.

[2.5] They tried to bring her back up to Sky World, but she was too heavy and so they lowered her to the water below.  A giant turtle said that they could put her on his back.  That’s what they did.  That is the reason some people call this place where we live, Turtle Island [i.e., North America].

[2.6]  Sky Woman thanked the creatures, but she said that she needed dirt in order to survive.  One by one, the animals dove down to try to get dirt from under the water.  Finally, some say it was the muskrat.  Some say that it was the otter. But finally, one creature [which?] was successful in bringing a few grains of dirt to Sky Woman.  She placed the dirt on the back of the turtle.  She stood up.  She sang and danced in a counter-clockwise direction and when she did that, the turtle’s shell grew and the grains of dirt multiplied.  She dropped the seeds from the Tree of Life and they started to grow right away.  When she finished dancing and singing, there was land and plant life as far as she could see.

[2.7]  Some time went by and Sky Woman gave birth to a baby girl.  The baby girl grew up.  She was told not to walk toward the west, but one day, the daughter started to walk toward the west.  As soon as she did so, a wind started to blow from the west and a cloud started to move toward the daughter.  The daughter saw the outline of a male-being in the cloud.  The daughter fainted.  When she woke up, she found two crossed arrows lying on top of her stomach.  She had become the bride of the Spirit of the West Wind.  That’s who she had seen in the cloud and now she was going to give birth to twin boys.

[2.8]  Those boys were very special.  After all, their grandmother was Sky Woman and their father was the Spirit of the West Wind.  The boys could talk to each other while they were growing inside their mother and they didn’t always agree with one another. 

[2.9] When it was time for them to be born, the right-handed twin was born in the usual way.  However, the left-handed twin decided to push his way out through their mother’s armpit.  That’s how he was born, but it killed their mother They buried their mother and from her head grew corn, beans and squash.  Those are the staple foods of the traditional Haudenosaunee [Iroquois] diet.  They are called The Three Sisters.  From her heart grew sacred tobacco which is used when there is a desire to communicate with the Creator.  From her feet grew the wild strawberry which is known as The Big Medicine.  Even in her death, the mother of the two boys was still making sure that they had what they needed to survive.  She is called Mother Earth and to this day she still supports all of the people, animals and plants.

[2.10] The twin boys grew up and went about the task of creating everything that is found in the natural world. [opportunities for other origin stories]  They made rivers, flowers, animals and eventually they made the human beings.  The left-handed twin became the keeper of the night and the right-handed twin became the keeper of the day.  When they were done making their creations, everything was in perfect balance.

[2.11] When Sky Woman passed away, her head was flung into the night sky.  She is still there.  She is called Grandmother Moon.  She reflects light at night.  She helps the people keep track of time [as in "moons" for "months"].  She controls the rise and fall of the waters.  She keeps company with the stars and the left-handed twin, the keeper of the night.  She regulates the monthly cycles of all of the female life which guarantees that new life will be born.  She is the leader of all the female life.

[2.12] Eventually, the human beings were made. They are supposed to be the caretakers [cf. Genesis 2.15?].  They are supposed to make sure that everything stays in balance.  However, it is the human beings who keep forgetting what they are supposed to do.  The human beings forget to take only what they need and to leave the rest for the future generations to experience and enjoy.  The human beings are the ones who forget that everything in the natural world is connected and is part of the same web of life and so should be respected.  It is hoped that all of the people of the world will someday remember and respect their original instructions and take good care of their Mother Earth.

[webpage note:] This is one very short version of the Haudenosaunee [a.k.a. Iroquois] Creation Story.  The whole story takes many days to tell.

Iroquois Creation Story 3 (1816)

[from introduction]

[3.1] Many Indian peoples had and still have stories of creation that explain how they came to be and to live in their homelands. These narratives offer a glimpse into the belief systems present before Europeans entered North America. Many northeastern Indian peoples share a legend of how the world was created on the back of a giant sea turtle (some still refer to North America as a “turtle island”). While there are many versions of the tradition, the following selection is from the Iroquois Indians of New York State. Anthropologists collected and transcribed most versions of the Iroquois creation myth in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. However, John Norton, son of Scottish and Cherokee parents and adopted by the Mohawks, recorded this version, one of the earliest, in 1816. Norton traveled widely in the eastern woodlands, playing an important role in the life of the Mohawks in the early nineteenth century.

[3.2] The tradition of the Nottowegui or Five Nations [the Iroquois or Haudenosaunee]  says, "that in the beginning before the formation of the earth; the country above the sky was inhabited by Superior Beings, over whom the Great Spirit presided. His daughter having become pregnant by an illicit connection, he pulled up a great tree by the roots, and threw her through the Cavity [hole] thereby formed; but, to prevent her utter destruction, he previously ordered the Great Turtle, to get from the bottom of the waters, some slime on its back, and to wait on the surface of the water to receive her on it. When she had fallen on the back of the Turtle, with the mud she found there, she began to form the earth, and by the time of her delivery had encreased it to the extent of a little island. Her child was a daughter, and as she grew up the earth extended under their hands.

[3.3] “When the young woman had arrived at the age of discretion, the Spirits who roved about, in human forms, made proposals of marriage for the young woman: the mother always rejected their offers, until a middle aged man, of a dignified appearance, his bow in his hand, and his quiver on his back, paid his addresses. On being accepted, he entered the house, and seated himself on the birth [berth? (=bed)] of his intended spouse; the mother was in a birth [berth? (=bed)] on the other side of the fire. She observed that her son-in-law did not lie down all night; but taking two arrows out of his quiver, he put them by the side of his bride: at the dawn of day he took them up, and having replaced them in his quiver, he went out.

[3.4] "After some time, the old woman perceived her daughter to be pregnant, but could not discover where the father had gone, or who he was. At the time of delivery, the twins disputed which way they should go out of the womb; the wicked one said, let us go out of the side; but the other said, not so, lest we kill our mother; then the wicked one pretending to acquiesce, desired his brother to go out first: but as soon as he was delivered, the wicked one, in attempting to go out at her side, caused the death of his mother.

[3.5] "The twin brothers were nurtured and raised by their Grandmother; the eldest was named Teharonghyawago, or the Holder of Heaven; the youngest was called Tawiskaron, or Flinty rock, from his body being entirely covered with such a substance. They grew up, and with their bows and arrows, amused themselves throughout the island, which encreased in extent, and they were favoured with various animals of Chace [chase, hunting]. Tawiskaron [Flinty Rock] was the most fortunate hunter, and enjoyed the favour of his Grandmother. Teharonghyawago [Holder of Heaven] was not so successful in the Chace [hunting], and suffered from their [brother’s & mother’s] unkindness.

[3.6] “When he was a youth, and roaming alone, in melancholy mood, through the island, a human figure, of noble aspect, appearing to him, addressed him thus 'My son, I have seen your distress, and heard your solitary lamentations; you are unhappy in the loss of a mother, in the unkindness of your Grandmother and brother. I now come to comfort you, I am your father, and will be your Protector; therefore take courage, and suffer not your spirit to sink. Take this (giving him an ear of maize [corn]) plant it, and attend it in the manner, I shall direct; it will yield you a certain support, independent of the Chace [chase, hunt], at the same time that it will render more palatable [appetizing] the viands [foods], which you may thereby obtain. I am the Great Turtle which supports the earth, on which you move. Your brother’s ill treatment will increase with his years; bear it with patience till the time appointed, before which you shall hear further.'

[3.7] "After saying this, and directing him how to plant the corn, he disappeared. Teharonghyawago planted the corn, and returned home. When its verdant sprouts began to flourish above the ground, he spent his time in clearing from all growth of grass and weeds, which might smother it or retard its advancement while yet in its tender state, before it had acquired sufficient grandeur to shade the ground.

[3.8] “He now discovered that his wicked brother caught the timid deer, the stately elk with branching horns, and all the harmless inhabitants of the Forest; and imprisoned them in an extensive cave, for his own particular use, depriving mortals from having the benefit of them that was original intended by the Great Spirit. Teharonghyawago [Holder of Heaven] discovered the direction the brother took in conducting these animals captive to the Cave; but never could trace him quite to the spot, as he eluded his sight with more than common dexterity!

[3.9] "Teharonghyawago endeavoured to conceal himself on the path that led to the cave, so that he might follow him imperceptibly; but he found impossible to hide himself from the penetrating [sharp-eyed] Tawiskaron. At length it observed, that altho' his brother [Flinty Rock] saw, with extraordinary acuteness, every surrounding object, yet he [Tawiskaron] never raised his eyes to look above: Teharonghyawago [Holder of Heaven] then climbed a lofty tree, which grew near to where he thought the place of confinement was situated: in the meantime, his brother passed, searching with his eyes the thickest recesses of the Forest, but never casting a glance above. He [Teharonghyawago, Holder of Heaven] then saw his brother [Tawiskaron, Flinty Rock] take a straight course, and when he was out of sight, Teharonghyawago descended, and came to the Cave, a short time after he had deposited his charge [fulfilled his mission]; and finding there an innumerable number of animals confined, he set them free, and returned home.

[3.10] "It was not long before Tawiskaron [Flinty Rock, bad twin], visiting the Cave, discovered that all his captives, which he had taken so much pains to deprive of their liberty, had been liberated: he knew this to be an act of his brother, but dissembling his anger, he meditated revenge, at some future period.

[3.11] "Teharonghyawago [Holder of Heaven, Good Twin] laboured to people the earth with inhabitants, and to found Villages in happy situations, extending the comforts of men. Tawiskaron was equally active in destroying the works his brother had done; and in accumulating every evil in his power on the heads of ill fated mortals. Teharonghyawago saw, with regret, his brother persevere in every wickedness; but waited with patience the result of what his father had told him.

[3.12] "At one time, being in conversation with his brother, Tawiskaron said ‘Brother, what do you think there is on earth, with which you might be killed?’ Teharonghyawago replied, ‘I know of nothing that could affect my life, unless it be the foam of the billows of the Lake or the downy topped reed.’

[3.13] “'What do you think would take your life?' Tawiskaron answered, 'Nothing except horn or flint.' Here their discourse ended.

[3.14] "Teharonghyawago returning from hunting, heard a voice singing a plaintive air: he listened and heard it name his Mother, who was killed by Tawiskaron; he immediately hastened towards the spot from whence the voice proceeded, crying, ‘Who is that, who dares to name my deceased mother in my hearing?’ [a widespread Indian taboo was to name the dead; cf. Journal of Madame Knight, para. 26] When he came there, he saw the track of a fawn, which he pursued, without overtaking it, till the autumn, when it dropped its first horns; these he took up, and fixed upon the forked branches of a tree.

[3.15] "He continued the pursuit seven years; and every autumn, when its horns fell, he picked them up, and placed them as he had done the first. At last, he overtook the deer, now grown to be a stately buck: it begged its life, and said, ‘Spare me, and I will give you information that may be great service to you.’ When he had promised it its life, it spoke as follows, ‘It was to give you the necessary information that I have been subjected to your pursuit, and that which I shall now tell you was the intended reward of your perseverance and clemency. Your brother, in coming into the world, caused the death of your Mother; if he was then wicked in his infancy, his malice has grown with his stature; he now premeditates evil against you; be therefore on your guard: as soon as he assaults you, exert yourself, and you will overcome him.’

[3.16] “He returned home; and not long after this adventure, was attacked by his brother. They fought; the one made use of the horn and flint stone which he had provided: the other sought for froth [foam] and the reed, which made little impression on the body of Teharonghyawago. They fought a long time, over the whole of the island [of Earth], until at last Tawiskaron fell under the conquering hand of his brother. According to the varied tones of their voices in the different places through which they passed during the contest, the people, who afterwards sprung up there, spoke different languages.” [The story starts as a general creation myth and concludes with the origins of languages; cf. the Tower of Babel, Genesis 11.1-9]

Source: Carl F. Klinck and James J. Talman, eds., The Journal of Major John Norton, 1816 (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1970), 88–91.


In Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans (1826), the turtle image appears as a tattoo on Uncas, the title character. (art by N.C. Wyeth)