Craig White's Literature Courses

Historical Backgrounds

Ojibwe or Chippewa people

a.k.a. Ojibwa, Anishinaabe, other variant spellings


The Chippewa, also known as Ojibwa, live primarily in northern Minnesota and surrounding states. In the 2000 census, 105,907 people in the U.S. claimed Chippewa ancestry.


"Boy Chief," painting by George Catlin 1835


5 Ojibwa chiefs, mid-19th century


George Catlin, drawing of Ojibwa Snowshoe Dance


Lake Leech Chippewa Delegation to Washington 1899


Chippewa mother with child on cradle board 1903


Chippewa on Leech Lake


Arrow Maker, Chippewa / Ojibwa


Hole-in-the-Day, Chippewa delegate, 1864



Native American people (200,000) living mostly in Canada, on north and west side of Lake Superior. In the United States the Cree live primarily in Montana on the Rocky Boy Reservation with Ojibwe / Chippewa, constituting the Chippewa Cree tribe. Originally the Cree also lived in the current states of Minnesota and North Dakota.

The Cree language of the Algonquian family is the most widely spoken Indian language in Canada.


location of Cree language groups in Canada & Montana (Great Lakes on lower right)