Craig White's Literature Courses

Terms / Themes

Novel of Manners

(web definitions)

The Novel of Manners



Although the novel of manners has always defied easy definition, literary historians seem to have arrived at a consensus on at least three elements: it originated in England, Jane Austen was the quintessential producer of the form, and its subject is the set of social conventions of a particular class in a particular time and place. The growth of the novel of manners appears to have been centered in the nineteenth century, although some critics place its emergence earlier, in the works of Henry Fielding (1707-1754) or Samuel Richardson (1689-1761); others insist it survives well into the twentieth century in the works of F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) and Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951). If critics agree on England as the country of origin, there is considerable disagreement on whether the form exists at all in America. And the class whose social relations are scrutinized in the novel of manners could be the aristocracy, but it is more likely the gentry, the emerging middle class, or even the lower class.

Changes in English society in the nineteenth century that eroded the boundaries between these various groups provided the background for the emergence of the novel of manners. Industrialization, urbanization, and revolutions in transportation and communication were accompanied by profound changes in the social hierarchy. As the aristocracy lost power to industrial and business interests, the standard markers for determining an individual's position in society were becoming increasingly unreliable. In some sense, the novel of manners emerged to clear up this uncertainty by offering detailed renderings of how the various groups behaved in everyday situations, and by both describing and prescribing codes of conduct. Many works contrasted the customs of the various groups, examining not only class and economic differences, but also the differences between city and countryside, between an earlier agrarian culture and a contemporary industrial order, and between England and America.

This apparent necessity to compare the conventions of two or more groups led some early critics to insist that the novel of manners was not suited to American literature. They proclaimed the United States a homogeneous, classless society where no distinctions between citizens existed. Some asserted that the manners of all groups were identical; others insisted that American manners were nonexistent, claiming that Americans were too preoccupied with taming the wilderness and settling the land to develop any standard rules of conduct. More recent literary historians have disagreed with this assessment, insisting that concern with American manners and mores can be traced at least as far back as James Fenimore Cooper's time (1789-1851).

The novel of manners is dominated by women—as authors, as subjects, and often as intended audience—and for this reason has occasionally been dismissed as trivial. William Forsyth (1871), for example, tempers his praise of Jane Austen's novels by criticizing the constant "husband-hunting" by Austen's female characters. But although the focus of the novel of manners—domestic life, matrimony, and social behavior—tends to be narrow, the "manners" being studied very often have far wider implications beyond the pouring of tea and the search for the proper mate. Adherence to good manners in these texts is not only a reliable indicator of one's social standing, but is intended to serve as an indicator of good morals as well.

The novel of manners often deals with gender issues as well, as the accepted standards for both manners and morals differ markedly between men and women. Regardless of the social class under study, there are frequently two distinct sets of codes in operation, and as many feminist critics point out, the ideals prescribed for women were often a source of anxiety for nineteenth-century women writers—an anxiety that plays itself out in the novels. In many woman-authored texts, the interaction of individual characters with the social conventions of their cultures is not a happy one, and the conventions themselves are as likely to be satirized as celebrated.

The novel of manners describes in detail the customs, behaviors, habits, and expectations of a certain social group at a specific time and place [Realism]. Usually these conventions shape the behavior of the main characters, and sometimes even stifle or repress them. Often the novel of manners is satiric, and it always realistic in depiction. Examples include Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, William Makepeace Thackeray's Vanity Fair, and various works by Edith Wharton. 

· The novel of manners is a sub-genre of the realist novel which deals with aspects of behaviour, language, customs and values characteristic of a particular class of people in a specific historical context. ...

· A novel that examines the customs and mores of a cultural group. The novels of Jane Austen and Edith Wharton are widely considered novels of manners.

· A novel that describes in detail the customs, behaviors, habits, and expectations of a certain social group at a specific time and place. Usually these conventions shape the behavior of the main characters, and sometimes even stifle or repress them. ...

· A novel focusing on and describing social customs and habits of a particular social group.

· work of fiction that re-creates a social world, conveying with finely detailed observation the customs, values, and mores of a highly developed and complex society


Definitions of Comedy of manners on the Web:

·        The comedy of manners is a genre of play which satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class, often represented by stock characters, such as the miles gloriosus in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young. ...

·        A play about the manners and conventions of an aristocratic, highly sophisticated society. The characters are usually types rather than individualized personalities, and plot is less important than atmosphere. Such plays were an important aspect of late seventeenth-century English Comedy. ...

·        Form of comic drama that became popular in seventeenth-century France and the English Restoration, emphasizing a cultivated or sophisticated atmosphere and witty dialogue.

·        A variety of comedy concerned with the mores and manners of an artificial and sophisticated segment of society.

Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing

Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer

Richard Brinsley Sheridan, The Rivals, School for Scandal

Oscar Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest

Philip Barry, The Philadelphia Story (1939)

Working Girl (1988; w. Kevin Wade, d. Mike Nichols)


Examples of Novels of Manners

Jane Austen’s novels: Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Emma 1815

Henry James, The American (1877), Daisy Miller (1878), The Europeans (1878), The Bostonians (1886)

Edith Wharton, The Age of Innocence 1921

F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby 1925

Structure: comedy or romantic comedy—social climbing and falling, conclusion in marriage

Subject matter descended from “Comedy of Manners”

Goldsmith, Sheridan’s School for Scandal in 18c, Oscar Wilde’s Importance of Being Earnest

Contemporary example of comedy of manners: Frazier

(affluent, educated, witty--classy but class uncertainty--if physical, graceful or finicky rather than gross or bumbling)

"manners" doesn't exactly mean same thing as etiquette, but more like behavior and how it fits with others and what it means

Passage to India p. 15 "To escape from the net and be back among manners and gestures that he knew!"

8 servant-master code


Subject: courtship, social interaction of leisure class, professionals, wannabes; social codes, reading and offering of signs 

Characters test each other’s interest, honor, generosity, folly, irony

Misconceptions, false identities, blunders, connections



Purposes of studying A Passage to India as "novel of manners"

"Novels of manners" are often regarded among the "finest literature," but can be difficult to read



A Passage to India extends conventional “novel of manners” form in at least 2 ways:


mystical union


+ gender: like James and Whitman, a gay / homosexual / queer author


Both intensely social and outside normal courtship





novel of manners

Types of novels (Virtual Salt)

Types of novels (InfoPlease)

Thomson-Gale definitions

Free Dictionary article on Forster & novel of manners


Comedy of Manners

Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost

Much Ado about Nothing


Moliere, Tartuffe

The Bourgeois Gentleman


esp. Restoration Comedy

Congreve, The Way of the World 1700

Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer 1773

Sheridan, The Rivals 1775

Wilde, The Importance of Being Ernest 1895

Barry, The Philadelphia Story 1939


preoccupied with codes of upper and middle classes

manners and conventions of an artificial, highly sophisticated society

satire against wannabes

satire of aberrations of social behavior

misfits, etc.