LITR 5439 Utopias homepage

Online Readings

Model Assignments

White's Homepage

LITR 5439 Literary & Historical Utopias

Research Links



Society for Utopian Studies

Communal Studies Association

Federation of Egalitarian Communities

Center for Millennial Studies

Intentional Communities Web Ring

Small, Local Community

Utopia: The Search for the Ideal Society in the Western World (NY Public Library)

Web sources for Utopian scholarship



Communitarian Network

Anti-Communitarian League

Amitai Etzioni (Communitarian Philosopher)

The New Urbanism and the Communitarian Trap



Utopia Online Library

North American college courses on Utopian Literature, Science Fiction, and Fantasy (the earlier version of this course made the list, along with Literature of the Future)

"American Utopian Expressions" Course at UT-Arlington

Utopia and Dystopia in American Literature (Rutgers-Newark)

Utopias & Dystopias (Clemson U. SF English-Interactive Site)

Categories of Utopias & Dystopias (from Clemson site above)

"Listmania" of utopian texts at

Utopia: A Selected Bibliography (NY Public Library)

Feminist Science Fiction, Fantasy and Utopia

19th-Century Utopias Course (U. of Louisville)

Utopia, Apocalypse, and the Millennium (NYU)

The Millennium Cometh: Apocalypse and Utopia in Bible, Sociology, and Literature (Loyola Marymount)

Movements or Social Phenomena



New Urbanism: Creating Living Sustainable Communities

The New Urbanism: An alternative to modern, automobile-oriented planning and development

New Urbanism Bibliography

New Urban News

Merits and Principles of New Urbanism

The New Urbanism and the Communitarian Trap



Nation article on diversifying suburbs

"Suburban Utopia?": article on diversifying suburbs and exurban white flight

First Suburbs Consortium (re mature communities)

Greg Knight's Patio Culture

Levittown: Documents of an Ideal American Suburb

"Exurb": Wikipedia Definition

"Exurbs" and "Natalism" movement (San Francisco Chronicle )

USA Today editorial on exurbs

Article on decline of working-class suburbs

"Suburbia and its Discontents"




definitions of cyberpunk (from 90s)

FAQs on cyberpunk (visually unfriendly) on cyberpunk

The cyberpunk educator (one learns nothing, but kinda funny)

cyberpunk syllabus (George Mason U.)

study guide for William Gibson's Neuromancer (1984)


Behaviorist Utopia?

Walden Two (1948)

Beyond Walden Two, by the Walden Community

Living Walden Two

Thaler & Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness (2008)

Authors' interview on Nudge




Utopian Sites or Communities

Celebration USA (Disney planned community)

Welcome to Celebration, Florida!

Celebration: Disney's Latest Development Project

photos of Celebration

Gallery of Homes at Celebration

Review of a visit to Celebration (from American Studies project at U. of Virginia.

Analysis of Celebration (from American Studies Today Online)

USA Today article on Celebration


Kibbutzim of Israel

The Kibbutz (Jewish Virtual Library)

Kibbutzim (study of co-ops)

Institute for Research on the Kibbutz and the Collective Idea

Kibbutz Movement (Communal Studies Association)


(Southern India)

Auroville, a Universal City in the Making

Auroville (Sri Aurobindo Website)

Auroville (Sri Aurobindo Society)

Sri Aurobindo




Twin Oaks & Los Horcones

Intentional Communities homepage

IC alphabetical directory

IC on Twin Oaks

IC on Comunidad Los Horcones


Twin Oaks Intentional Community (Virginia)

1971 Time article on Twin Oaks


Los Horcones homepage

Los Horcones as Walden Two Community



19th- and early 20th-Century American Utopias

Oneida Community

The Oneida Community (New York History Net)

Oneida Community Mansion House: A Living Museum

Oneida Community Collection at Syracuse University Library + Photos

Oneida Flatware history of Oneida Community



National Park Service on 19th-century American Utopias + Shakers


New Harmony (Indiana)

Historic New Harmony

overview of New Harmony history

New Harmony scientists, educators, writers & artists


Amana Colonies

Amana Colonies: National Park Service website

Amana History (Amana Heritage Society)

The Community of True Inspiration (Amana religion)

Cults or Communes?

Evangelical communes

The Simple Way (Philadelphia; see links to "family" of related communes?)


Jehovah's Witnesses & Seventh-Day Adventists

Watchtower: Official Website of the Jehovah's Witnesses

Seventh-Day Adventist Church (Official Website)

Seventh-Day Adventist History



Jonestown: Examining the Peoples Temple (Rice University)

Jonestown: Jim Jones and the People's Temple (Rick A. Ross Project)

Review of Jonestown Documentary (New York Times)

"Utopian Nightmare" (San Francisco Chronicle)



Oyotunji African Village & Orisa-Vodou Spiritual Lineage



Utopian Authors


Thomas More



Thomas More (English Renaissance Literature)

St. Thomas More Website

Thomas More Society of America

Thomas More College (Kentucky)

The College of St. Thomas More (San Antonio)

Thomas More Law Center

Catholic Encyclopedia biography of More


Renaissance Humanism

Teaching Christian Humanism


Edward Bellamy


Looking Backward


Edward Bellamy and the Pledge to the Flag

Edward Bellamy, a 19th-Century Visionary

short biography of Bellamy with notes on Nationalist Clubs

James J. Kopp, "Looking Backward at Edward Bellamy's Influence in Oregon, 18881936" (interesting on evolution of Bellamy's influence and of utopian literature in USA)

Gilded Age (1865-1890s) > Progressive Era (1890s-1910s)

"Robber Barons" and "Captains of Industry" > "Trust-Busters"


Perkins Gilman


The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Society

PAL page on Perkins Gilman

C. P. Gilman and Herland

High School student review of Herland 

C. P. Gilman biography with section on utopian writings

Herland Study Guide

Online copy of Herland 


Ayn Rand


Ayn Rand Institute

Ayn Rand Society (American Philosophical Institute)

Journal of Ayn Rand Studies

Objectivist Reference Center

Ayn Rand in C-Span American Writers Series

Ayn Rand in Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Ayn Rand at Internet Movie Database

Unofficial Passion of Ayn Rand Homepage


Octavia Butler

 Parable of
the Sower

Octavia Butler bibliography (from Feminist Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Utopia)

Unofficial Octavia Butler webpage

Octavia Butler interview

Octavia Butler biographical article


Ernest Callenbach


Ecotopia entry from Wikipedia (with note on Ecotopia as one of "Nine Nations")

What is Ecotopia? (contains bibliography of other Callenbach writings)

Ecotopia at 30

E. F. Schumacher Society


Toni Morrison, Paradise


PBS interview of Toni Morrison


Dennis Danvers, The Circuit of Heaven



Marge Piercy,

Woman on the Edge of Time





Marge Piercy homepage

Marge Pierce website on Woman

Wikipedia introduction and links

Michelle Erica Green, review of Woman

Transcript of Piercy speech on women's utopian fiction






Miscellaneous Sites


Nineteenth-Century Utopias in America (National Park Service Essay)



Glenn C. Altschuler, "Apathy, Apocalypse, and the American Jeremiad." New Literary History 15.1 (2003): 162-171.

Pop Occulture blog on Apocalypse as emergence-of-self in Jungian psychology

David Spangler, "Unburdening America--Three visions of the North American story:
progress and utopia, apocalypse, and planetary culture"

Ted Daniels, Apocalypse and Millennium: A Bibliography

Ted Daniels, Introduction to Apocalypse and Millennium: A Bibliography

MLA Style Sheet




Le Guin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas"

Backgrounds to Le Guin's "Omelas"


Article on Las Vegas NE & Santa Fe NM as "dialectical utopias"


Hostel in the Forest (near Brunswick GA)


Summary / review of News from Nowhere (Utopian novel of 1890-91 by William Morris)

Official Mahatma Gandhi eArchive and Reference Library

reopening of Gandhi's Phoenix Ashram

Mother's Village (concerning communal relief efforts for Tsunami victims by Amma, "the hugging saint")

Mithras (mentioned as chief God in More's Utopia but also an historical deity from Middle Eastern and Hellenistic empires)




Links from 2005 student Daniel Robison

On page 58 of Herland, we learn that they worship the goddess Maaia. Below is a great web page I found on the nature of Maia, plus her role as the three faces of woman-virgin, mother, crone-similar to the role of the original parthenogenic woman-Queen, Priestess, Mother (59).

This is a really interesting site that incorporates both koinonia and utopianism.

This site gives a good discussion of the meaning of koinonia.


I found this site while looking for annus mundi. Its interesting look at apocalyptic millennialism.